Title: Survey nasal septum
Stain hematoxylin-eosin, dog. The nasal septum consists of a cartilage skeleton present as one long (1, cartilago vomeronasalis) and two short plates (2, cartilago septi nasi) with centrally dark-stained areas of chondrocytes. Below, the distal tip is covered with keratinized stratified squamous epithelium (3), including hairs (4) and sebaceous glands (5). This lining epithelium with its appendages continues at both sides
up into the space of the nasal chambers. Higher within the chamber the appendages disappear. In a short transitional zone (6, folded area) the dermal papillae become deeper. Eventually only a slightly keratinized squamous epithelium with small papillae remains in the upper part (7). In the submucosa, starting in the transitional zone, venous sinusoids form a cavernous vascular tissue (8), known as swell bodies (cave nose bleeding or epistaxis). At the upper side close to the long hyaline cartilage plate seromucous nasal glands (9) with larger
draining ducts (*) are present.
Title: Upper part of nasal septum
Stain hematoxylin-eosin, dog. Stratified squamous epithelium (1) with small papillae (2). The lamina propria contains many small and large thin-walled blood vessels also known as the venous plexus (sinusoids) of Auerbach (3, swell body). Nasal glands (4) with draining ducts (5, larger diameter) and hyaline cartilage (note perichondrium with lightly stained peripheral chondrocytes (6) and the darker-stained central chondrons (7).
Title: Surface of the nasal septum
Description: Scanning electron microscopy of anterior part of the nasal septum, rat. The superficial squamous cells of the stratified epithelium are large cells provided with small stubby microvilli. Cell borders are well indicated (↓).
Keywords/Mesh: respiratory system, nasal cavity, nasal septum, sebaceous gland, hair, squamous stratified epithelium, sero-mucous gland, nasal vestibulum, nasal gland, venous sinusoid, venous plexus, swell body, hyaline cartilage, microvillus, histology, POJA collection